SOHO家庭办公住宅空间设计研究(转)

时间: 2013-08-13 / 分类: 城市规划论文 / 浏览次数: / 0个评论 发表评论
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SOHO家庭办公住宅空间设计研究

浙江长征职业技术学院  工程造价专业

毛小玲

杭州万向职业技术学院

张一品

摘要:随着网络信息时代的到来,人们通过使用网络和电脑进行工作,越来越成为一种新的普及化的生活时尚潮流。传统的居住建筑满足不了人们在其中工作 的需求,传统的工作建筑也不能满足人们在其中居家的需求。因此,迫切需要一种将居住和工作功能结合在一起的新建筑类型出现,来满足社会的客观需要。 SOHO人群居家工作, SOHO群体的居住、工作需求会随着时代的发展而不断发生变化、出现新的情况,同时,SOHO家庭办公住宅设计也会随之相应地发生改变,在实践领域中不断地更新新的内容。本文SOHO对家庭办公住功能空间设计进行较为深入的分析和论述,结合SOHO群体的生活特点,针对建筑经济性使用的理念,提出在 SOHO家庭办公住宅空间设计中需要系统考虑人、机、环境3个要素之间的相互作用和相互依存的关系来决定家具系统总体的性能。

关键词: SOHO,家庭办公,空间设计

 

SOHO,即Small Office Home Office,居家办公,这里的SOHO是专指基于国际互联网上的、能够按照自己的兴趣和爱好自由选择工作的、不受时间和地点制约的、不受发展空间限制的白领一族。更重要的是反映在能否按照自己的兴趣和爱好去自由的选择工作,反映在所选择的工作是否有着极大的发展空间。SOHO,它代表的是最先进的生产 力,代表的是最活跃的新经济.。SOHO族的生活方式与传统的生活方式有很大差别。他们免掉了因上下班交通拥挤而浪费时间,他们远离了办公室的人事纠纷, 他们从事着自己所喜爱的工作,他们更有人自己做了老板。他们是当今时代的新新人类。 SOHO家庭办公住宅空间设计中需要系统考虑人、机、环境3个要素之间的相互作用和相互依存的关系来决定家具系统总体的性能。同时,利用人机系统设计理论 科学,将3个要素有机联系起来寻求系统的最佳参数,可以最终确保获得系统的最高综合效能以及系统最优组合方案的实现。

1. 居住和工作和谐统一

SOHO家庭办公住宅不仅要具备居住与工作的双向功能,如果能使两个空间合二为一,那将会极大的节约有限的空间和资源,而SOHO就恰恰具有了这个 特性。同时,在竞争激烈的社会里,人们更需要有一个舒适方便、功能齐全的办公空间,在繁忙的工作后希望有一个处处贴心温馨、可以恢复疲惫身心的家,设计于 是承载了对人类精神和心灵慰藉的重任。SOHO家庭办公住宅功能和家庭成员关系的复杂化向住宅空间提出了更高的可变性要求。将“人性化设计”应用到 SOHO家庭办公住宅的居室设计当中,我们可以让办公区变得更加舒适,工作效率更高。

一套SOHO家庭办公住宅应具备六大基本功能,即工作学习、起居、睡眠、饮食、洗浴、就寝、储藏,这些功能根据其开放程度可以大体分为公、私两区; 根据其活动特点可以分为动、静两区。例如秦皇岛嘉远、上海江桥万达广场、武汉南国等SOHO家庭办公住宅,建筑设计优势突出,SOHO家庭办公住宅的主力 面积控制在40-60平米,均采用精装修复式结构,层高4.8米-5.2米,可分割为两层,户型实用率高达200%,双层双室双厅双卫设计。楼下客厅、厨 房、卫生间等一应俱全,户型紧凑方正,全装修配置。

图1:嘉远SOHO  46.39M2公寓

1.1  SOHO家庭办公住宅空间是复式空间,就空间布局而言是上下两层的标准层高,相对于单平面层的住宅。采用复式住宅套型。在分离居住与工作的效果上要强出很多。复式住宅并不是一个新鲜事物,但在普通住宅中,复式手 法通常被用作分离起居室和卧室,但这两种功能的对立并没有达到像SOHO家庭办公住宅这样的功能差异,在同一层面上也完全可以得到充分的解决,从这个意义 上讲,普通复式住宅主要的作用可能还在于装点空间的层面上,而对于SOHO家庭办公住宅来说,复式住宅套型是必不可少的要素。

1.2  SOHO家庭办公住宅空间是流动空间。SOHO家庭办公住宅内部由客厅、餐厅和工作区域以及厨房,卫生间、卧室等组成。跃层套型在二楼还设计了家庭活动空 间。SOHO家庭办公住宅空间的界定采取模糊方式,兼具多重功能。即空间即可灵活划分,具有极大的可变性,同时又具有多层次性,这极大地适应了SOHO家 庭办公住宅空间的可变性要求。

1.3  SOHO家庭办公住宅和谐性

空间是建筑的本质,当然也是SOHO家庭办公住宅的内涵。将SOHO的居住和工作两种功能进行合理的调配,建筑空间自然就有比较大的增值度。从这两 种功能在空间上产生的矛盾入手是解决问题的最好方法。SOHO根据居住和工作两种功能将空间一分为二,功能分离的同时做到了动静分离。空间的延伸,不但增 加了房屋的使用功能,改变了普通层高视觉效果的压抑性,巧妙的旋转梯和精致的挑空给人无论是工作还是休憩,都能安然自得。建外SOHO的根据空间使用的私 密性将SOHO工作空间置于入口厅处,朝内则私密,朝外则公共空间,也不失是解决二者冲突的好办法。这两种考虑都为SOHO空间提供了很大的增值空间。

 

2. 信息化的功能配置

真正意义上的SOHO家庭办公住宅,应具有功能较为完整的智能家居办公信息网络系统,而且应是一种基于ASP模式、在Internet上运行的网络 化的全新物业管理系统。业内专家认为:一个真正意义上的智能化系统要包括办公和家居的智能化子系统、网络子系统、物业管理及GIS子系统、消防子系统、闭 路监控子系统、界区报警子系统、电子巡更子系统、出入口子系统、门禁子系统、可视对讲子系统、背景音乐子系统和三表自动远传子系统等,只有拥有并能够使这 些系统运行良好,使住户能够确实享受到诸多便利,才能称得上是真正意义上的智能化家庭办公住宅。在信息化时代大量生产竞争下业曾经十分熟悉的事物,在新环 境中会展现出崭新含义。SOHO就是一种把办公的系统元素进行新方的组合,正在产生着意想不到的协同作用的信息化公方式。电脑、扫描仪、打印机、传真机、 国际互联网等高新技术产品。根据SOHO办公不同模式,网络化的建设主要两种:

2.1  SOHO宽带路由器

SOHO宽带路由器是指小型路由器,能在家庭、学校宿舍、小型办公室等环境实现多机共享上网。一般提供1个 10/100M自适应以太网(WAN)接口,可接xDSL/Cable/以太网; 提供4-8个10/100M自适应以太网(LAN)接口,与电脑连接; 设置简单 ,性能稳定。

2.2四式齐发缔造SOHO网络

四式齐发缔造网络提供员工网速快、IT行稳、财务要性价比、老板易管理,四式齐发缔造网络SOHO网络以双WAN口接入、PPPoE帐号设置、 QoS智能弹性带宽、超易用上网行为四大功能为首的完美配置,采取双线路策略;支持线路备份;负载均衡;可根据IP地址/NAT会话分配线路;可指定源地 址/目的地址/带宽比分配线路;支持电信/网通双线路策略路由,策略库自动更新。

图2: 四式齐发缔造SOHO网络

3. 与环境充分协调环境

在SOHO家庭办公住宅规划设计中,环境因素也是至关重要的。

3.1 SOHO家庭办公住宅地处交通区和商务区核心位置,交通涉及航空、高铁、城铁、高速公路、轨交、公交等多种交通方式,大型商业配套包含了餐饮、休闲、购物、娱乐、文化等各种业态,完全能满足不同客户一站式消费的需求。

3.2  SOHO家庭办公住宅需要有充足的光线。由于家庭办公不可能一直靠灯光照明,尽量多地利用自然光无疑是最值得优先考虑的因素。把工作区放在朝南的窗口边,这样就能得到较长的日照时间,而且也会比较暖和。而在阴雨天或晚上,灯光的补充作用就显得十分重要。

3.3 SOHO家庭办公住宅工作区外景致的选择也很重要,是喧闹的大街、阳光科光灿烂的花园、绿树葱翠的树林或是夜晚的万家灯火,这些不同的景致会带给你不同的心情。好的景致可以让你在一个轻松快乐的气氛中工作,成为你繁忙工作中最频繁的调剂。

3.3   SOHO一族更多抛弃办公室环境的原由是因为办公室的冰冷和呆板,能以轻松的方式去工作,在一个具有温情的环境去安心的工作。脱离人多嘴杂的办公室,一个人安静地做事,既高效又心情舒畅。从外观上,SOHO家具不 能表现出纯办公家具的那种冷冷的直板感,要有曲线、弧度从造型上去表现温情,用更明快的色彩来替代千篇一律的白与灰而表达一种活跃而自然的氛围。.从舒适 度上,SOHO家具一定要健康,要符合人体工程学。坐椅设计要简单,不能用休闲的标准,但腰部要有承托力,这样才能坐得安稳又不致太随意。从家具功能的布 局上,尺寸适宜、布局紧凑。书架与文件柜可以开放式格局,使文件夹、文档、各种物品都井井有条、一览无遗,使用者可以及时准确地拿到想要的物品。因为

人只有在合适的环境下工作,才不会浪费时间与精力,从而使工作效率更高。从空间上,SOHO家具可以多多由边架、交叉支架与拉杆、搁板、抽屉柜门、柜体和附件六部分构成的产品具有开放通透的特性,可以让小居室显大,变得敞亮,给SOHO工作者更多的视觉空间感受。
4 结束语

SOHO家庭办公住宅模式不仅仅是居住建筑领域上发生的重大的变革,它所反映的是一个社会生产力发生巨大变化后的结果,一个信息时代在居住建筑上的 强有力的反应。随着信息社会的到来,人们可以借助于互联网、电脑及辅助设备,就可以在住宅中完成过去在办公室中才能完成的工作,SOHO家庭办公住宅模式 仅仅是居住革命,经过改革开放30来年的快速增长和物质积累,中国内地以及有相当一部分人拥有和具备了个人独立工作或者家庭工作现代物质要素和工作环境。 加之信息时代新一轮创业潮的高涨,新兴的创业者为考虑低成本投入,自然选择了中低档小户型工作楼作为工作场所,甚至是在住宅内进行创业工作。由于市场上存 在着对小型工作场所的需求,国内SOHO住区的形成也就成了必然。

 

Research on Design of SOHO Residential Unit

Zhenjiang Changzheng Vocational & Technical College   Project Cost

Mao Xiaoling

Hangzhou Wanxiang Polytechnic

Zhang Yipin

 

Abstract: Along with the arriving of the information era, more and more people begin to utilize network and computers in their job, making it a new popularized living and fashionable trend. As for this, tradition residential buildings are not able to satisfy people’s needs of work, while tradition office buildings can not meet people’s needs of living as well. Therefore, a new type of building, which integrates its residential function with working function altogether, is urgently demanded to fulfill the objective requirements of the society. The SOHO people work at home, living in groups, and their jib requirements may change, or bring about new situations along with the development of the era. Correspondingly, the design of SOHO residential unit shall also develop and update with new contents in practice. The paper has made deep analysis and discuss on design of functional spaces in SOHO residential unit. After giving consideration to the living features of SOHO groups, as well as based on the concept of economical usage of buildings, the paper further proposed that, in the design of SOHO residential unit, the interaction and interdependency among the three elements of human beings, facilities and environment shall be systematically studied to play the entire unit to its highest performance.

 

Keywords: SOHO, Home Office, Space Design

 

SOHO is an acronym for Small Office Home Office, which means handling office affairs at home in Chinese. Here, the SOHO in the paper is specially referred to the white collars mentioned on the Internet, who are able to choose their job freely in accordance with their interests and hobbies without being restricted by time, location, or space. A more important feature of SOHO lies in whether the participators are able to select their own occupations without restrictions, and whether the occupation they selected has huge development potentials. SOHO represents the most advanced productivity, and the most prosperous new-economy. The living style of SOHO people has large differences from the traditional one, for they have saved much time that may be wasted by traffic jams on the way to job site. Working free from the personnel disputes in office, they are engaging in the occupation that they love. Some of them even become the Boss and they are the X-generation in this new era. In the design of SOHO residential unit, the interaction and interdependency among the three elements of human beings, facilities and environment will eventually affect the overall performance of house furnishings. Correspondingly, by utilizing the theories in man-machine system, we can organically connect the three elements together to figure out optimized parameters for the system, so as to ensure the highest comprehensive performance of the system, as well as the realization of the most optimized combination plan for the system.

 

1. The Harmony and Unity of Living and Working

Besides being equipped with the two functions of living and working, SOHO residential units shall also try to roll the two functional units into one, with the purpose of saving the limited space and resources to its maximum extent, which is just a distinctive feature of SOHO. Moreover, in this society with fierce competitions, people would prefer a comfortable and convenient office space with full functions, in which, they are able to enjoy a warm environment and relax themselves after a busy day. As for this, the design of SOHO residential unit is consequently conferred with the heavy responsibility of comforting people’s spirit and soul. The functions of SOHO residential unit, as well as   the complexity of family members’ relationship, have put forward a higher and variable requirement for designers. If we can apply “Humanity Design” in to the house design of SOHO residential unit, the office area is sure to become more comfortable and more efficient.

 

A completed SOHO residential unit shall be equipped with six fundamental functions, including working and studying, living, bathing, sleeping and storing. According to the degree of openness, these functions can generally be divided into the public area and the private area. On the other hand, if dividing according to features of activity, there also can be the dynamic area and the static area. For example, Qinhuangdao Jiayuan, Shanghai Jiangqiao Wanda Square, Wuhan Nanguo, as well as many other SOHO residential units, all have quite outstanding advantages in their architectural design. Most of these SOHO units have controlled the area to the range between 40 and 60 square meters, with refined decoration and duplex structure. As the storey height is 4.8 meters to 5.2 meters, the entire unit can be divided into two floors, with double rooms, double halls and double restrooms. The utilization ratio of the entire unit can be up to 200%, with all functional areas, such as living room, kitchen and rest room downstairs. The whole house is square-shaped and compact, with refined decoration.

Diagram 1: Jiayuan SOHO 46.39 M2 Apartment

1.1 Compared with single-storied residences, SOHO residential unit is a duplex space, with two stories of standard story height, so it will create a much better effect in separating the living area from the working area. Actually, duplex residence is not a new concept at all. However, in traditional residences, duplex structure was normally used to separate the living room from bedrooms. As a matter of fact, the opposites between the two functions are different from the functional differences in SOHO residential units, which can be completely solved on the same story. Speaking from this aspect, the role of duplex structure applied in traditional residences mainly lies in decoration of space. By contrast, duplex structure is in fact a necessary element in the design of SOHO residential unit.

 

1.2 SOHO residential unit is a variable space, with its internal space constituted by living room, dining room, working area, kitchen, restroom, bedroom, etc. The spring-layered house has also designed family activity space on the second floor. Space in SOHO residential units has little restrictions in its function. Normally, it can be divided freely, with large flexibility, multiple functions and multiple hierarchies, which is very suitable to the variability requirements of SOHO residential unit.

 

1.3 The Compatibility of SOHO Residential Unit

Space is the essence of architecture, as well as the connotation of SOHO residential unit. If we make proper arrangements to the two functions of living and working in SOHO residential unit, the architectural space is consequently and naturally added with more values. As for this, the best way to solve the problem is to start from the contradictions between the two functional spaces. SOHO residential units would divide space into two parts in accordance with the two functions of living and working, along with which, dynamic is separated from static. The extension of space, has added the house with new functions, as well as eliminated the repressions of normal storey height in the aspect of visual effect. The ingeniously designed spiral stair and elaborate hollows can make working and relaxation peaceful and comfortable. In addition, according to spatial privacy, Jianwai SOHO places the working space at the hall by the entrance, which is private inwards and public outwards, providing a good solution for the contradictions between the two functional spaces. Both of the above mentioned two thoughts have endowed SOHO space with much appreciation potential.

 

2. Informationized Functional Configuration

In its true sense, every SOHO residential unit shall be equipped with comparatively full-functioned Intelligent SOHO Information Network System that is a completely new property management system that based on ASP mode and can be operated through the Internet. Experts in the field proposed that, an intelligent system in its true sense shall consist of various sub-systems for office and home functions, such as intelligent, networking, property management, GIS, fire protection, CCTV monitoring, boundary alarming, electrical guard tour, entrance and exit control, entrance guarding, visual intercom, background music, as well as automatic data transmission of the three meters. Only with these well operated systems, can property owners truly enjoy various benefits from SOHO residential unit, and this is the truly Intelligent SOHO. The quite common things under the productivity competition of information era many be endowed with new meanings in a new environment. SOHO is a new combination of elements in the office system, which has been creating an unexpected and informationized office mode with synergistic mechanism. Many new and high-tech products, such as computer, scanner, printer, fax, internet, have been applied in SOHO. According to concrete office mode, the information construction of SOHO mainly consists of the following two types:

 

2.1 SOHO Broadband Router

SOHO broadband router is a small router that enables multiple computers sharing a web connection at the same time, which is widely applied in household, school dormitory, small office, and other environments. Generally, the router would provide one 10/100M self-adaptive WAN port, which can establish connection with xDSL / Cable / Ethernet network. In addition, the device offers 4 to 8 10/100M self-adaptive LAN ports for connections with computers. Normally, the routers are easy to be set, with stable performance.

 

2.2 SOHO Network Construction

SOHO network shall be able to provide fast and stable internet connection, high cost-performance finance, as well as strong manageability, which establishes network connections thorough four perfect specifications, including the double WAN ports, PPPoE account setup, QoS smart and flexible bandwidth, as well as the easily used operations. Furthermore, it has introduced a double line strategy, and plenty of other new technologies, such as supporting online backup and balanced loading, allocating circuit according to IP address / NAT session, being able to assign the source address / target address / the allocation line for bandwidth ratio, supporting the double line routing strategy of both China Telecom / CNC, as well as the automatic update of the strategy library.

Diagram 2: SOHO Network Construction

3. Complete Coordination with the Environment

In the designing of SOHO residential unit, environment is also a crucial factor.

 

3.1 SOHO residential unit shall be located in the kernel position of transportation and commerce. Transportation refers to various transportation ways, such as aviation, high-speed rail, city rail, express way, rail transportation, bus, etc. Large scale commercial matching consists of catering, relaxation, shopping, entertainment, culture, and some other industries that can meet customers’ needs of one-stop consumption.

3.2 SOHO residential unit shall have sufficient illumination conditions. SOHO shall never depend its lighting on electrical light. Therefore, trying to make use of the natural light is inevitably a primary factor to be considered. In order to obtain longer sunlight time, as well as heating the room, it is suggested that the working area be placed near to the south window. As for cloudy or raining days, the complementation of electrical light will consequently become important.

3.3 The external view of SOHO residential unit is important as well. Noisy streets, shining and bright gardens, green forests, or lamps and candles of myriad families at night, these different views will bring you with different affections. Pleasing views can provide you with a comfortable and happy working atmosphere, becoming a most frequent regulator in your busy work.

3.4 Because of the cold and dull environment, many SOHO people abandoned the traditional office, so as to work breezily and whole-heartedly under an environment full of warmth. Staying away from noisy offices and handling affairs silently and independently, it is a high efficient and pleasing working style. Seeing from the appearance, furniture in SOHO residential unit shall be different from the traditional straight designed office furniture. Instead, curves and radians shall be applied to express a sense of warmth. Moreover, the stereotyped color of gray and black shall be replaced by more lively colors to deliver an active and natural atmosphere. If giving consideration to the level of comfort, SOHO furniture shall be healthy, complying with human engineering. All chairs shall be simply designed and shall abandon the standards of casualty. More importantly, there shall be supporting forces in the waist part to make the sitting posture stable and dignified. Speaking from the overall arrangement of furniture, all furniture shall be of proper size and compactly arranged. As for the book shelf and the file cabinet, opened structures can be adopted to make all file clippers, documents, and other stuffs tidy, as well as easy to be found by the user. A proper environment can help to save much time and energy, which will further improve the working efficiency. In the aspect of space, in order to create a sense of openness and transparent, SOHO furniture can be a product that assembled by six components, including side frames, cross supports, pulling rods, shelves, drawers, cabinet doors, cabinet body and accessories. The design can make the room larger and brighter in visual effect, giving SOHO workers more visual feelings of space.

4. Conclusion

The mode of SOHO residential unit is a large scale revolution in the field of residential architecture. What it is reflecting is the result after the social productivity encounters huge changes, as well as a strong response to residential architecture in the information era. Along with the arriving of the information era, people are able to complete their work in their residence, with the help of the Internet, computers, and some auxiliary equipment. Before that, they would have to handle all there affairs in office. The SOHO mode is far from a residential revolution. Through the rapid development and accumulation in the 30 years after the opening-up and reform policy was implemented, there are large quantities of people in Mainland China who have possessed the modern material elements and working environment for personal independent work or home office. In addition, along with the rise of the new round investment tide, and in order to lower down the cost, some new investors naturally chose some middle or lower class working buildings, or even some residential areas as their job site. Owning to the high demand for small scale job site, it is inevitable for the formation of SOHO residential unit in China.

 


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