美国区域规划法介绍

时间: 2010-03-05 / 分类: 城市规划管理 / 浏览次数: / 0个评论 发表评论

美国区域规划法介绍

An Introduction to Inclusionary Zoning
Tonight’s Game Plan
{ What is inclusionary zoning?

{ Why does a community need it?Why does a community need it?

{ What are a few common
characteristics?

{ Where has inclusionaryy zoningg
worked?

..{ What are the benefits? What are the What are the benefits? What are the
tradeoffs to consider?
Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Zoning

{ Exclusionary:

Zoning inherently
separates uses;
lt th

regulates the siize
and dimension of
homes;; sometimes
excludes a mixture
of residential uses

{ Inclusionary:

Encourages or
requires builders to
ilincludde
hhousiing
ffor
low and mid-
income households;;
Affordable housing
policy through the
private sector

private sector
Local Exclusionary Zoning Issues
Roger K. Lewis
Whyy would a communityy need
inclusionary zoning?

{ Counteract exclusionary zoning
..{ Insufficient supply of affordable housing

Insufficient supply of affordable housing
{ Incomes not growing at same pace as
housing prices

housing prices

Impacts of Housing Crisis
{ People cannot afford to live near
their work (teachers, civil servants)

their work (teachers, civil servants)
z Longer commutes
z Increased congestion

Increased congestion
z More pollution
z Decreased qqualityy of life
{ Segregation by race and/or social
class

class
{ Infrastructure costs are higher
Characteristics of Inclusionaryy
Zoning Ordinances

..Set aside requirements or percentages
Dli

..Developer iincentives
..Target populations based on household
income levels

income levels
..Affordability control periods
….Alternatives to construction of affordable Alternatives to construction of affordable

housing units
Set-Aside Requirements
{ Locality requires certain percentage of
total market rate units to be affordable

Developer Incentives
{ Impact Fee Waivers
..{ Flexible Design Requirements

Flexible Design Requirements
{ Expedited Permit Processing
{ Density Bonuses

{ Density Bonuses
z Locality grants developers right to build more
units pper acres in exchangge for a certain number
of affordable units
Affordability Control Periods
Mechanism to maintain affordability
over a certain time period while also
over a certain time period while also
allowing homeowner to benefit from
rising property value

rising property value
Affordable Housing Alternatives
If developer cannot include affordable
units
units…
{ May contribute to the locality’s
afffforddablble hhousiing ffundd
{ May build affordable housing units
in another location
Local Approaches to Inclusionary
Zoning

Montggomery County, MD – Moderatelyy
y y,
Priced Dwelling Unit (MPDU)

{ Since 1974 all new subdivisions of 50+ units
required to set aside up to 15% for affordable
housing

{ 1/3 of units may be purchased by local housing
authority or nonauthority or non-profit CDCprofit CDC

{ Developer can get maximum density bonus of
22% more units than allowed by zoning

22% more units than allowed by zoning

{ 10,000+ units of affordable housing has been
created & county still has very strong housing
market

{ Flexible design standards
Arlington County, VA
{ Uses 25% density bonus that may
be used for both market-rate and
be used for both market rate and
affordable units*

{ Up-zones

{ Up zones

{ Increases FAR if 10% of units are
affordable

affordable

{ Does not have an inclusionary
zoning ordinance per se

zoning ordinance per se…

*legal status unknown; recently challenged in court
Fairfax County, VA – Affordable
y,
Dwelling Unit Ordinance (ADU)

{ Dillon’s Rule prevented county from
enacting ADU until 1990

enacting ADU until 1990
{ Limited scope
..z Only applies to developments of 50+

Only applies to developments of 50+
where rezoning, subdivision or special
exception needed

z Does not apply to multifamily housing
with 4+ stories
bl di

z Must be located in approvedd sewer
service area
Considerations
{ Balance the interests of the community
with the developer

p
{ Impacts on infrastructure, schools, roads,

communityy character
{ Local government administration costs
..{ Surrounding property values

Surrounding property values
{ Unwilling developers (will they go
elsewhere?)

elsewhere?)
{ Good neighborhood design
Benefits of Inclusionary Zoning
{ Creates affordable housing through
private sector

private sector

{ Minimizes public funds

{ Increases socio-economic and racial
diversity of families

{ Provides housing for the local
workforce

workforce

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